Respiratory System Notes / exam prep


Notes By Billy Staggs Cahill

Fall / 2017

Onondaga Community College

Anatomy & Physiology / Nursing






















Integument II / nurse notes

Notes and writing by Billy Staggs Cahill 

Nursing – RN 

Fall 2017

Anatomy and Physiology

Instructor: Dr. Vera Mcilvain


Why it’s important for a nurse to know the Integumentary System.

By: Billy Staggs Cahill (Nursing Student)

     Like most anatomy, the epidermis and dermis is very complex and has physiological cycle to it. It’s important for a nurse to know about about skincare, vitamins, nutrients, and learning about the subcutaneous layer — the hypodermis is important, since hypodermic syringes are part of nursing. It’s all relative and accumulative knowledge; the more a nurse knows, the better she / he is on the career front.

     There are many nursing and pre – nursing students who look at anatomy and physiology as a mountain to climb on their way to success. In all that is sacred of science and useful in the medical field — anatomy and physiology should be a main focus at the time it’s studied by the student. It’s very important for a good nurse to know and study anatomy and physiology thoroughly. 

“A fine perceptive of the human anatomy is clinically significant to members of the health care team, including nurses. It is important to know the human body and how it functions in its healthy state. By knowing such, it will be easier to learn about pathophysiology, clinical assessment and many other nursing procedures. Those are exact reasons why we, nurses, have this subject as a prerequisite for other nursing subjects.” Nursing Crib — Why You Should Know Your Anatomy is a good online article and source that sums up why it’s important for all the health team should know anatomy, including nurses! Of course — this is relating to your own medical knowledge.

In what ways is it good for a nurse to know about the Integumentary System?

Why should we know about the skin? 


Vitamins and oils?

How about nutrition, and what our skin needs?

 It’s good for nurses to take care of themselves, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and diet. Let’s get one thing straight! There’s no such thing as perfect! However, there is theory and practice. What works best for each individual’s skin may not be for everyone. This doesn’t mean go out and spend all your money on some secret anti – aging cream or drops. It simply means to know the Integumentary System is to know how our skin works — what’s best for our skin and good hygiene. 

Let’s focus on skincare:

skin care1

 People are always looking at ways to help their skin, and sometimes they may ask a nurse. Most likely not, but as nurses ( female or male), we should focus on ways helping ourselves and maintaining a good example of health. It doesn’t take a “skin genius” Dermatologist to maintain good skin. 

According to WebMD, the following are the vitamins and antioxidants to maintain skin health:

  • Vitamin A, also known as retinol, is important for helping to keep skin healthy
  • Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, helps protect cells and tissue and aids wound healing.
  • Vitamin E helps to maintain cell structures and protect cell membranes.
  • Selenium is a mineral that helps prevent damage to cells and tissues.
  • Vitamins C and E, and selenium are antioxidants that may help protect skin from sun damage.

There are numerous products that can be used for different types of skin. Everyone varies when it comes to using skin products. We may use a new lotion or soap that has hit the market, while our mothers’ use Oil of Olay. Some people invent their own skin products by fruits, herbs, lotions and all kinds of x, y, z potions. Whatever you find works best for your integument is what’s best for you — it’s really that simplex. Personally, I find a combination of Vit. E & A to work wonders. Also many different lotions seem to work best for skin. It doesn’t have to be a specific, expensive lotion from Eden. It can be as simplex as baby lotions, coconut oils or Argon. There’s so many different names and varieties, it’s all sample, test and game. 

     Many people, including nurses have a bad habit of biting their nails. There’s ways of stopping and breaking this bad habit! It’s called a clear coat of nail hardener, even men can use this technique to stop biting their nails. It makes you think twice about biting your nails with a chemical layered on top of it. Who wants a nurse with nails like Dr. Jekyl? I certainly wouldn’t! 

     Good hygiene and skincare IMO is a big PLUS for nurses, doctors and anyone who desires to be a good example of health. This is ONLY one reason it’s good to know the Integumentary System and all anatomy of our bodies. It’s not only critical for a health team, but also good measure in taking care of ourselves! 



Side notes (compilation) to the Integumentary System:

Langer’s Lines:

Important for surgeons to know, not so much nurses.

langer's lines

  • In certain areas of the body
  • Collagen fibers in reticular region orient more in one direction than in others
  • Knowledge of lines important for surgeons, however on Integ. Exams for all medical students.



  • Functions:
  • Protects and insulates
  • Guards openings (nose, ears) against particles and insects
  • Is sensitive to very light touch
  • Hair follicle: produce hair
  • Invagination of epidermis into dermis
  • Wrapped with dense Connective Tissue
  • Surrounded by root hair plexus
  • Arrector pili – smooth muscle cells. “goosebumps”
  • Hair color (melanocytes) grey hair: melanocytes produce less melanin


Microscope slides / Melanocytes and other / Epidermis & Dermis












Hypodermic syringes:

hypodermic needle2