Vitamin E & A1 for youth

Written by: Billy Staggs Cahill (LGBT Therapist / RN Nursing Student) 

All pictures by: Billy Staggs Cahill 

When it comes to skin, we must know that aging is natural and it’s going to happen. There are NO magical potions from Eden, that will reverse time. We must find what helps us best — and with that — something healthy for our skin. I have found three creams that help the most: Vit E, Vit A1 and Promedics. 

First off, I have made my own mixture to form one cream, and I find it works amazingly (especially soon after you apply it). 

Here goes, the recipe to my cream:

Vitamin E

Vitamin A1 (Retinol)


Brazilian camu camu oil

Smells good, lush, works wonders and ingredients are easily obtained from Target, Beauty Supply Stores, Burlington, Macy’s or anywhere oils and creams are found locally. 

You can use either a facial pad, sponge or facial cleanser (electronic) to apply the mixed creams. It’s very easily applied and dries pretty quickly! However, you may want to rub in the cream very well until comfortable with how it feels and looks. 

I find the best time to apply it, is after showering or early in the morning. You could even apply it before going to bed, but your pillow may be a little greasy in the morning depending on how much you apply. 

Good Luck! 






Spring / Summer Flowers


     It’s that time of the year, when everyone runs out and buys flowers and plants (anyone who enjoys them anyway). A few pictures above of my flowers and plants so far (inside / outside). Sometimes, it’s hard to find the time to work with flowers / plants, being in nursing school. 

     It is my theory, that flowers and plants are therapeutic for those who live in suburban areas, and not enjoying the country 100%. One of the main reasons I grow and care for them is getting a sense of some wilderness and nice fragrances. At one time my house looked like a tropical island. I had way too many flowers / plants (you can never really have too many plants). 

   I will be posting more pictures of my flowers and plants as the summer goes on . . . 






Dieting and good food

Dieting and good food 

By: Billy Staggs Cahill

     So lately, I’ve been on a food kick! I find that eating healthier all through the day helps my energy levels and motivation. Fruits, vegetables and drinks loaded with nutrition is beneficial to my being (can’t speak for anyone else). When it comes to our health, we simply try to find ways of helping ourselves (those of us who care), and it can be a mountain to climb choosing what to add / subtract from your diet. It has taken me a while to put together a “semi – diet” that has helped balance my electrolytes, but what I have found WORKS!!! It’s a every – other – day – diet. I guess you could call it an interval diet”.  I eat something here and there to kill hunger, but it’s what I eat, that balances my electrolytes and in theory — gives me energy. 

   I have found that many fruits, vegetables, seeds, some meat here and there and grains are my ticket to keeping my body slim yet energized. Did I mention calcium? I drink lots of milk and inhale loads of cheese at times (trying to be funny, but I really do). Calcium is a very important part of my intake, I find. Everyone’s body chemistry and hunger is so different, there’s no ONE FOR ALL DIET! 

Some of the foods I have started eating”

  • bananas 
  • apples
  • oranges
  • grapes
  • melons (all kinds)
  • strawberries and walnuts
  • seeds and peanuts
  • cereals and rice cakes
  • tomatoes, cucumbers, wild onions, celery (lots), corn, green beans and all other types of vegetables
  • pork, beef and chicken (intervals of hunger, not everyday)
  • tuna, noodles and mayonnaise
  • power bars, cakes and pies (intervals of hunger, not everyday)
  • cheese and peanut butter
  • drink lots of milk, V8 juice and diet sodas (diet sodas in intervals, not everyday)
  • milk and ice cream (ice cream in intervals of hunger, not everyday)

 It seems I eat whatever I want instead of dieting, and if you guessed that — you’re absolutely correct! I’m not a big believer in starving yourself or not eating, or eating very little! It’s not healthy for your body to intake ZERO carbs and get very little nutrition, it’s a disaster! The key to keeping healthy and fit the best you can, is to have a good intake of food but keeping your intake within intervals! You don’t have to eat a big meal every 3 – 6 hrs! You eat your food in intervals and keep energized and busy! Doesn’t mean you have to climb a mountain! It simply means don’t lie around all day! The key to good health is by eating and exercising all in moderation. If you’re looking for a miracle pill, you’re not going to find one! 




Respiratory and Urinary review notes

Billy Staggs Cahill

Nursing Student

Onondaga Community College


Notes by: Billy Staggs Cahill


Respiratory and Urinary (Renal) Systems

Abstract notes 

    When we think of the respiratory and urinary systems, we think of only breathing and urination. However, these systems are not so simplistic! There’s many cycles and functions, that are vital for human life. 

Let us take a deeper look beginning with the respiratory system:

The conducting portion of the respiratory system carries air to the lungs.

Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli.

O2 and CO2 are transported using different mechanisms. 

Air is inhaled actively and exhaled passively.

Breathing rate is controlled by the RESPIRATORY CENTER of the brain.


Assuming that you already know most of the basics of the respiratory system, let us take an extensive look into gas exchange:




The alveoli of the respiratory zone, is the site where gas exchange occurs.

External Respiration:

Note: The PCO2 is noted here, because the process is cyclic, as we know.

Diffusion of O2 occurs at a PO2 104 (give or take) → PO2 100, and PCO2 46 → PCO2 40. The O2 will then travel in the bloodstream via Hb (hemoglobin) / pulmonary circuit. 

Internal Respiration:

The RBC will reach the tissues, and the PO2 has equilibrated to PO2 104 and will diffuse into the tissues: PO2 104 → (PO2 40, inside tissue). Coming from cellular respiration, is the CO2, which is waste. It will have a PCO2 46 → (PCO2 40, inside RBC). 

As we know, there’s three ways CO2 is transported to the lungs / alveoli:

  1. 70% is transported buffered with water as carbonic acid.
  2. 20% CO2 bound to proteins, particularly Hb.
  3. 10% via plasma.


70% :

Pick up  CO2 → CO2 + H2O (H2O from RBC)  → H2CO3 (carbonic acid) → HCO3 and H+Hb (Hb in RBC)

Note: HCO3 diffuses into plasma

20% :

CO2 → CO2 + Hb (Hb in RBC) 


10% :

CO2 → CO2 in plasma

Arrival at alveoli  

HCO3 diffuses back into RBC

H+Hb → H → Hb 

H → HCO3 → H2CO3 → CO2 and H2O 


All CO2 diffuses into alveoli at a PCO2 46 → PCO2 40

All via systemic circuit / deoxygenated blood.

Our gas exchange is complete. The cycle will continue repetitively!


The next concept is the pleural cavity.

Note: These notes are abstract and review, and not in particular order.


Pleura is a serous membrane, that surrounds the lung, doubled layered:

parietal and visceral

parietal pleura is attached to the chest wall, and the visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs.

Between these layers of pleura is a potential space; a space that doesn’t exist but it could exist, if something goes wrong.

There’s a small amount of fluid in this potential space, this serous fluid acts like a lubricant.

The purpose for the pleura is to move inside the body cavity without friction, as friction would cause damage to the lungs. The pressure inside the pleura membrane is – 4 mmHg, intrapleural pressure is 756 mmHg, as we know atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg. The pressure keeps the lungs ‘stuck’ to the chest wall so they don’t collapse. 


Lung Compliance:

Ease at which lungs can be stretched . . . elasticity.

More ELASTIC → greater the compliance

surface tension of lungs

Greater tension → less compliant

distensibility  of thoracic cavity: deformities of thorax, ossification of costal cartilages, paralysis of intercostal muscle – hinder thoracic expansion

Airway resistance: 

  1. chronic inflammation, infections – scar tissue – fibrosis.
  2. decrease of surfactant.


lung compliance


Spirometry Measurements :




Vt  – tidal volume – normal respiratory cycle

IRV – inspiratory reserve volume – after a normal inspiration

ERV – expiratory reserve volume – after a normal expiration

RV – risidual volume – after maximal exhalation 

Why is a PFT given?

To test your lung function before surgery. To help diagnose lung conditions or diseases such as asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or pulmonary fibrosis. To check the extent of lung disease or to help explain new breathing symptoms. To find out if your breathing medicine is working.



Diffusion capacity/DLCO tests

This test determines how well the oxygen in your lungs is able to move to the bloodstream.  You will be asked to keep a tight seal on a mouthpiece with a clip on your nose and breathe normally.  After several breaths, you will take in as deep a breath as possible and blow it out slowly.  You will keep blowing out until you are told to take a deep breath in and hold it for 10 to 15 seconds.  Then, you will blow out again through the mouthpiece.

Taken from UPMC, life changing medicine. 

Lung Capacities: 

4200 female capacity

6000 male capacity

Acidosis and Alkalosis

Acidosis – abnormal physiological state characterized by a plasma PH below 7.35.

Alkalosis – A condition of a plasma PH above 7.45; deficiency oh hydrogen ions or an excess of bicarbonate ions.

Respiratory response to acidosis –

Increased respiratory rate lowers PCO2 effectively converting carbonic acid molecules to water.

H2CO3 → H2O

Respiratory response to alkalosis –

Decreased respiratory rate elevates PCO2 effectively converting CO2 molecules to carbonic acid.

CO2 → H2CO3


Renal response to acidosis –

Kidney tubules respond by secreting H ions, removing CO2, Reabsorbing HCO3 to help replenish bicarbonate reserves.

Renal response to alkalosis –

Kidney tubules respond by conserving H ions and secreting HCO3.


Capsule cells:


Factors Controlling Glomerular Filtration:


55 mm Hg  –  (30+15)

55 mm Hg – 45 mm Hg

= 10 mm Hg

If at ZERO = No Filtration